EMI Units are functioning in all the 14 District Employment Exchanges The main objective of the programme is to collect on a regular and continuous basis, the information regarding
- Periodic changes in the level of Employment
- Occupational, Educational, Industrial and Sectoral composition of employment
- Shortages and surplus in manpower etc
Employment exchanges are responsible for collecting information about employment in the Private Sector as well as in the Public Sector at regular intervals. This is being done by what is known as establishment reporting system.
Under this system, all establishments in the Public Sector and selected establishments in the Private Sector engaged in non-agricultural activities are required to furnish details about the number of persons they are employing regularly, vacancies that have occurred therein and the type of persons they find to be in short supply.
The information is collected from all establishments in Public Sector and those employing 25 or more persons in the Private Sector under the provisions of the Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies)Act, 1959 which has made it obligatory on them to render to the local Employment Exchange employment and Occupational returns prescribed under the Employment Exchanges ( Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Rules, 1960.
Information from smaller establishments employing 10-24 persons in the Private Sector is, however, collected on voluntary basis.
As employment information is collected on an establishment reporting system the information relates only to employers and employees but not to independent workers or unpaid family workers. Employers include owners, proprietors, managers, working partners or directors of firms who work full-time for the firm. Employees include piece-rated workers but not part-time workers.
The purpose in obtaining the information from employers is three-fold.
First to give Employment Officers more facts to enable them to decide more accurately the type of personnel who are in short supply. This is essential in order to decide what type of vocational training courses are to be provided.
Second, to provide information which is needed to improve and add to the services offered by the Employment Service ( such as giving advice about employment prospects to those leaving schools and colleges and details about employment opportunities to persons seeking work). Employers too will be able to call on the Employment Service for more reliable information about the employment market in an area.
Third, to provide a method by which to measure continuously changes in the level of employment in an Employment Exchange area or other areas constituting a specific employment market.
The data are also needed to watch the progress of the Five Year Plans in creating more employment. The information is also required for other planning and administrative purpose both at State and National levels.
The term employment market is used to refer to an area having a concentration of economic activity for which the labour force is habitually drawn from persons living in the area. Since the unit of analysis is a local area, the Employment Service comprising of a net work of Employment Exchanges is in a unique position to analyse local employment market situation.
By virtue of their being in close contact with the employers in the area, Employment Exchanges are in an advantageous position to collect the required information from them which is to be studied in conjunction with the information gleaned from the day-to-day operations at the Exchange.
For the above reasons, they can make a more qualitative analysis of the employment market situation.
The State Employment Market Information ( SEMI Unit ) set up at each State headquarters are responsible for the development of the programme in the State. They ensure that the objectives of the scheme are achieved and that full use is made of the data collected. The functions of the SEMI Unit include the
- Establishment and maintenance of supplementary procedures for the collection of employment information agreed to by the Central and State Governments;
- Establishment of close liaison and working arrangements with all other agencies in the State concerned with manpower planning, employment and unemployment;
- Presenting the manpower and employment point of view to all departments of the State Government concerned with planning and development;
- Supervision of the collection of employment data by Employment Exchanges;
- Scrutiny of the area reports published by Exchanges and preparation of material for,
- Publication at the State level.
The programme is organised and developed at the three levels:-
(i) At employment exchanges, where issue of questionnaires and collection of returns from employers/ establishments in the Private and Public Sectors are done. Local scrutiny of returns received and their tabulation as also analysis and interpretation of the data and reporting on area basis are done at this level.
A copy of the tabulated data is sent to the SEMI Unit also. Occupational returns are however, provided to the SEMI Unit after local scrutiny has been done at the Exchanges.
(ii) At the SEMI Unit, where examination and study of the tabulated data and reports received from the Exchanges are made and State-wise reports prepared. Consolidated data for the State as a whole are also forwarded by the SEMI Unit to the national headquarters ( DGE&T).
The employment coverage as well as other technical aspects of the programme are also examined by the SEMI Unit. The Occupational returns received from the Exchanges are forwarded to the DGE&T, after necessary scrutiny.
(iii) At the DGE&T, where State-wise tabulations received from SEMI Units are consolidated and examined and all India reports prepared, tabulation of information contained in the occupational returns as is necessary is undertaken. All India Occupational-cum-Educational report is prepared at the DGE&T.
The need for regular flow of employment information cannot be overemphasized particularly when a major problem of unemployment and imbalances of labour supply and demand have to be tackled from various angles. The Employment Market Information can be put to various uses. The uses are broadly, twofold;
a) internal uses within the Employment Service, and
b) external uses outside the Employment Service.
(a) INTERNAL USES:
In placement, to obtain knowledge of vacancies and the pattern of employment in different industries, to promote contact with employers with a view to meeting their manpower requirements and to assess the absorption of applicants seeking work;
(1) In evaluating the extent to which the Employment Exchange operations are influencing the employment market (viz. Degree of penetration in employment market);
(2) In identifying and classifying employment market areas; and
(3) In matters relating to organisation and management of the Employment Service (viz. Staffing , location of Exchanges etc.)
(b) EXTERNAL USES:
(1) In Economic Development: To make an assessment of manpower requirements of professional, technical, scientific and skilled workers, and the employment opportunities likely to be generated as well as the progress made in creating employment opportunities, and reducing the incidence of unemployment;
(2) In Vocational Guidance: The information is valuable for educational authorities in providing young persons with information about employment opportunities and careers over a wide range of occupations and industries;
(3) In Vocational Training: Employment Market data are of use for training authorities in planning training programmes according to present and future needs;
(4) In fields such as labour welfare, industrial relations, social security, etc. In these fields knowledge of employment, unemployment, size of labour force, etc., is necessary for planning various welfare programmes;
(5) Other miscellaneous uses: Such as in calculation of national income, town planning etc.